Mohd Tahir Abdullah, Mohd Lair Noor Ajian, Peter Eva Sarah


The modern industries are still relying on welding to join two metals by fusion between the base metal and the filler
material. In this Research, the focus is the multi-pass welding, as this technique is used when it exceeds the
limitations of two-pass welding technique and is widely used in the industry like oil and gas, constructions and
productions. The study on the effects of multi-pass welding on the mechanical properties of mild steel on shielded
metal arc welding (SMAW) joint will unravel a better understanding on multi-pass welding by different types of filler
material and number of welding passes. The design of experiment (DOE) for this study is two-level ANOVA which
will be an essential tool to determine the outcome of this study. In detail, two-level ANOVA technique is used where
two types of electrodes (E6013 and E7016) and two different numbers of passes (3 passes and 5 passes). The base
material for this study is mild steel as it has good weldability and the specimens will undergo tensile and hardness
test in order to obtain experimental results. After all the results are taken, all data computed and analysed using full
factorial design of experiment. The outcome of the multi-pass study can be concluded that there are significant
differences in the factors that were analysed. The interaction between electrode and passes shows that the
interaction is not parallel with each other. Tensile strength and hardness of welded metal however there are no
differences in hardness when the passes increased. The results for Rockwell Hardness test shows that the highest
hardness recorded is 83.69 HRG for 3 passes, while UTS recorded was 569.46 MPa for 5 passes, both using electrode
E7016. Based on the response optimizer done with Full Factorial Design of Experiment, electrode E7016 is the ideal
electrode used in this study for hardness and tensile

Full Text:



Cary, H.B., Helzer, S. 2005. Modern Welding Technology, 6th Edition. Pearson.

Gowrisankar, I., Bhaduri, A.K., Seetharaman, V., Verma, D.D.N., Achar, D.R.G. 1987. Effect of the Number of Passes on the Structure and Properties of Submerged Arc Welds of AISI Type 316L Stainless Steel, 147- 154.

Kalpakjian, S., Schmid, S.R., Musa, H. 2014. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 6th Edition. Pearson.

Ratni, V., Hunny. 2015. Analyzing the Effect of Parameters on SMAW Process. International Journal of Emerging Research in Management and Technology, 4(6), 16-21.

Tabish, T.A., Abbas, T., Farhan, M., Atiq, S., Butt, T.Z. 2014. Effect of Heat Input on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the TIG Welded Joints of AISI 304 Stainless Steel. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 5(7), 1532-1541.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2020 Plemillan Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.